Initial Attestation Service Integration Guide

Introduction

TF-M Initial Attestation Service allows the application to prove the device identity during an authentication process to a verification entity. The initial attestation service can create a token on request, which contains a fix set of device specific data.

TF-M Initial Attestation Service by default enables asymmetric key algorithm based attestation (asymmetric attestation for short). Symmetric key algorithm based attestation (symmetric attestation for short) can be enabled instead by selecting build option SYMMETRIC_INITIAL_ATTESTATION.

  • In asymmetric attestation, device must contain an attestation key pair, which is unique per device. The token is signed with the private part of attestation key pair. The public part of the key pair is known by the verification entity. The public key is used to verify the token authenticity.

  • In symmetric attestation, device should contain a symmetric attestation key to generate the authentication tag of token content. The verification entity uses the same symmetric key to verify the token authenticity.

The data items in the token used to verify the device integrity and assess its trustworthiness. Attestation key provisioning is out of scope for the attestation service and is expected to take part during manufacturing of the device.

Claims in the initial attestation token

The initial attestation token is formed of claims. A claim is a data item, which is represented in a key - value structure. The following fixed set of claims are included in the token:

  • Auth challenge: Input object from caller. Can be a single nonce from server or hash of nonce and attested data. It is intended to provide freshness to report and the caller has responsibility to arrange this. Allowed length: 32, 48, 64 bytes. The claim is modeled to be eventually represented by the EAT standard claim nonce. Until such a time as that standard exists, the claim will be represented by a custom claim. Value is encoded as byte string.

  • Instance ID: It represents the unique identifier of the instance. In the PSA definition it is:

    • a hash of the public attestation key of the instance in asymmetric attestation.

    • hashes of the symmetric attestation key of the instance in symmetric attestation.

    The claim is modeled to be eventually represented by the EAT standard claim UEID of type GUID. Until such a time as that standard exists, the claim will be represented by a custom claim Value is encoded as byte string.

  • Verification service indicator: Optional, recommended claim. It is used by a Relying Party to locate a validation service for the token. The value is a text string that can be used to locate the service or a URL specifying the address of the service. The claim is modelled to be eventually represented by the EAT standard claim origination. Until such a time as that standard exists, the claim will be represented by a custom claim. Value is encoded as text string.

  • Profile definition: Optional, recommended claim. It contains the name of a document that describes the ‘profile’ of the token, being a full description of the claims, their usage, verification and token signing. The document name may include versioning. Custom claim with a value encoded as text string.

  • Implementation ID: Uniquely identifies the underlying immutable PSA RoT. A verification service can use this claim to locate the details of the verification process. Such details include the implementation’s origin and associated certification state. Custom claim with a value encoded as byte string.

  • Client ID: The partition ID of that secure partition or non-secure thread who called the initial attestation API. Custom claim with a value encoded as a signed integer. Negative number represents non-secure caller, positive numbers represents secure callers, zero is invalid.

  • Security lifecycle: It represents the current lifecycle state of the instance. Custom claim with a value encoded as an integer.

  • Hardware version: Optional claim. Globally unique number in EAN-13 format identifying the GDSII that went to fabrication, HW and ROM. It can be used to reference the security level of the PSA-ROT via a certification website. Custom claim with a value is encoded as text string.

  • Boot seed: It represents a random value created at system boot time that will allow differentiation of reports from different system sessions. The size is 32 bytes. Custom claim with a value is encoded as byte string.

  • Software components: Optional, but required in order to be compliant with the PSA-SM. It represents the software state of the system. The value of the claim is an array of CBOR map entries, with one entry per software component within the device. Each map contains multiple claims that describe evidence about the details of the software component.

  • No software measurements: Optional, but required if no software component claims are made. In the event that the implementation does not contain any software measurements then it is mandatory to include this claim to indicate this is a deliberate state. Custom claim with a value encoded as an unsigned integer set to 1.

Each software component claim can include the following properties. Any property that is not optional must be included:

  • Measurement type: Optional claim. It represents the role of the software component. Value is encoded as short(!) text string.

  • Measurement value: It represents a hash of the invariant software component in memory at start-up time. The value must be a cryptographic hash of 256 bits or stronger. Value is encoded as byte string.

  • Version: Optional claim. It represents the issued software version. Value is encoded as text string.

  • Signer ID: Optional claim, but required in order to be compliant with the PSA-SM. It represents the hash of a signing authority public key. Value is encoded as byte string.

  • Measurement description: Optional claim. It represents the way in which the measurement value of the software component is computed. Value is encoded as text string containing an abbreviated description (name) of the measurement method.

Initial attestation token (IAT) data encoding

The initial attestation token is planned to be aligned with future version of Entity Attestation Token format. The token is encoded according to the CBOR format and signed according to COSE standard.

Code structure

The PSA interface for the Initial Attestation Service is located in interface/include. The only header to be included by applications that want to use functions from the PSA API is psa/initial_attestation.h.

The TF-M Initial Attestation Service source files are located in secure_fw/partitions/initial_attestation. The CBOR library is located in lib/ext/qcbor folder.

Service source files

  • CBOR library
    • lib/ext/qcbor This library is used to create a proper CBOR token. It can be used on 32-bit and 64-bit machines. It was designed to suite constrained devices with low memory usage and without dynamic memory allocation. It is a fork of this external QCBOR library.

    • lib/ext/qcbor/inc/qcbor.h: Public API documentation of CBOR library.

  • COSE library:
    • lib/ext/t_cose: This library is used to sign a CBOR token and create the COSE header and signature around the initial attestation token. Only a subset of the COSE standard is implemented. The COSE_Sign1 and COSE_Mac0 (only available in TF-M fork) signature schemas are supported.

    • It is a fork of this external t_cose library.

    • lib/ext/t_cose/src/t_cose_crypto.h: Expose an API to bind t_cose library with available crypto library in the device.

    • lib/ext/t_cose/crypto_adapters/t_cose_psa_crypto.c: Implements the exposed API and ports t_cose to the PSA Crypto API.

  • Initial Attestation Service:
    • attest_core.c : Implements core functionalities such as implementation of APIs, retrieval of claims and token creation.

    • attest_token_encode.c: Implements the token creation functions such as start and finish token creation and adding claims to the token.

    • attest_asymmetric_key.c: Calculate the Instance ID value based on asymmetric initial attestation key.

    • tfm_attest.c: Implements the SPM abstraction layer, and bind the attestation service to the SPM implementation in TF-M project.

    • tfm_attest_secure_api.c: Implements the secure API layer to allow other services in the secure domain to request functionalities from the attestation service using the PSA API interface.

    • tfm_attest_req_mngr.c: Includes the initialization entry of attestation service and handles attestation service requests in IPC model.

    • attest_symmetric_key.c: Calculate the Instance ID value based on symmetric initial attestation key.

Service interface definitions

  • Boot loader interface: The attestation service might include data in the token about the distinct software components in the device. This data is provided by the boot loader and must be encoded in the TLV format, definition is described below in the boot loader interface paragraph. Possible claims in the boot status are describe above in the software components paragraph.

  • Hardware abstraction layer:
    • Headers are located in platform/include folder.

    • tfm_attest_hal.h: Expose an API to get the following claims: security lifecycle, verification service indicator, profile definition.

    • tfm_plat_boot_seed.h: Expose an API to get the boot seed claim.

    • tfm_plat_device_id.h: Expose an API to get the following claims: implementation ID, hardware version.

  • SPM interface:
    • attestation.h: Expose an API to bind attestation service to an SPM implementation.

  • PSA interface:
    • psa/initial_attestation.h: Public API definition of initial attestation service.

  • Crypto interface:
    • t_cose_crypto.h: Expose an API to bind the t_cose implementation to any cryptographic library.

PSA interface

The TF-M Initial Attestation Service exposes the following PSA interface:

psa_status_t
psa_initial_attest_get_token(const uint8_t *auth_challenge,
                             size_t         challenge_size,
                             uint8_t       *token_buf,
                             size_t         token_buf_size,
                             size_t        *token_size);

psa_status_t
psa_initial_attest_get_token_size(size_t challenge_size,
                                  size_t *token_size);

The caller must allocate a large enough buffer, where the token is going to be created by Initial Attestation Service. The size of the created token is highly dependent on the number of software components in the system and the provided attributes of these. The psa_initial_attest_get_token_size() function can be called to get the exact size of the created token.

System integrators might need to port these interfaces to a custom secure partition manager implementation (SPM). Implementations in TF-M project can be found here:

  • interface/src/tfm_initial_attestation_func_api.c: non-secure interface implementation for library model

  • interface/src/tfm_initial_attestation_ipc_api.c: non-secure interface implementation for IPC model

  • secure_fw/partitions/initial_attestation/tfm_attestation_secure_api.c: secure interface implementation

Secure Partition Manager (SPM) interface

The Initial Attestation Service defines the following interface towards the secure partition manager (SPM). System integrators must port this interface according to their SPM implementation.

enum psa_attest_err_t
attest_get_boot_data(uint8_t major_type, void *ptr, uint32_t len);

enum psa_attest_err_t
attest_get_caller_client_id(int32_t *caller_id);
  • attest_get_boot_data(): Service can retrieve the relevant data from shared memory area between boot loader and runtime software. It might be the case that only SPM has direct access to the shared memory area, therefore this function can be used to copy the service related data from shared memory to a local memory buffer. In TF-M implementation this function must be called during service initialization phase, because the shared memory region is deliberately overlapping with secure main stack to spare some memory and reuse this area during execution. If boot loader is not available in the system to provide attributes of software components then this function must be implemented in a way that just initialize service’s memory buffer to:

    struct shared_data_tlv_header *tlv_header = (struct shared_data_tlv_header *)ptr;
    tlv_header->tlv_magic   = 2016;
    tlv_header->tlv_tot_len = sizeof(struct shared_data_tlv_header *tlv_header);
    
  • attest_get_caller_client_id(): Retrieves the ID of the caller thread.

  • tfm_client.h: Service relies on the following external definitions, which must be present or included in this header file:

    typedef struct psa_invec {
        const void *base;
        size_t len;
    } psa_invec;
    
    typedef struct psa_outvec {
        void *base;
        size_t len;
    } psa_outvec;
    

Hardware abstraction layer

The following API definitions are intended to retrieve the platform specific claims. System integrators must implement these interface according to their SoC and software design. Detailed definition of the claims are above in the claims in the initial attestation token paragraph.

  • tfm_attest_hal_get_security_lifecycle(): Get the security lifecycle of the device.

  • tfm_attest_hal_get_verification_service(): Get the verification service indicator for initial attestation.

  • tfm_attest_hal_get_profile_definition(): Get the name of the profile definition document for initial attestation.

  • tfm_plat_get_boot_seed(): Get the boot seed, which is a constant random number during a boot cycle.

  • tfm_plat_get_implementation_id: Get the implementation ID of the device.

  • tfm_plat_get_cert_ref: Get the hardware version of the device.

Boot loader interface

It is recommended to have a secure boot loader in the boot chain, which is capable of measuring the runtime firmware components (calculates the hash value of firmware images) and provide other attributes of these (version, type, etc). If the used boot loader is not capable of sharing these information with the runtime software then the BOOT_DATA_AVAILABLE compiler flag must be set to OFF (see Related compile time options).

The shared data between boot loader and runtime software is TLV encoded. The definition of TLV structure is described in bl2/include/tfm_boot_status.h. The shared data is stored in a well known location in secure internal memory and this is a contract between boot loader and runtime SW.

The structure of shared data must be the following:

  • At the beginning there must be a header: struct shared_data_tlv_header This contains a magic number and a size field which covers the entire size of the shared data area including this header.

    struct shared_data_tlv_header {
        uint16_t tlv_magic;
        uint16_t tlv_tot_len;
    };
    
  • The header is followed by the entries which are composed from an entry header structure: struct shared_data_tlv_entry and the data. In the entry header there is a type and a length field. The tlv_type field identifies the consumer of the entry in the runtime software and specify the subtype of that data item. The tlv_len field covers the length of the data (not including the size of the entry header).

    After the entry header structure comes the actual data.

    struct shared_data_tlv_entry {
        uint16_t tlv_type;
        uint16_t tlv_len;
    };
    
  • Arbitrary number and size of data entry can be in the shared memory area.

The figure below gives of overview about the tlv_type field in the entry header. The tlv_type always composed from a major and minorbnumber. Major number identifies the addressee in runtime software, which the databentry is sent to. Minor number used to encode more info about the data entry. The actual definition of minor number could change per major number. In case of boot status data, which is going to be processed by initial attestation service the minor number is split further to two part: sw_module and claim. The sw_module identifies the SW component in the system which the data item belongs to and the claim part identifies the exact type of the data.

tlv_type description:

|------------------------------------------------ |
|                  tlv_type (16 bits)             |
|-------------------------------------------------|
|   tlv_major(4 bits)   |   tlv_minor(12 bits)    |
|-------------------------------------------------|
| MAJOR_IAS   | sw_module(6 bits) | claim(6 bits) |
|-------------------------------------------------|
| MAJOR_CORE  |          TBD                      |
|-------------------------------------------------|

Overall structure of shared data:

---------------------------------------------------------------
| Magic number(uint16_t) | Shared data total length(uint16_t) |
---------------------------------------------------------------
| Major_type(4 bits) | Minor_type(12 bits) | Length(uint16_t) |
---------------------------------------------------------------
|                         Raw data                            |
---------------------------------------------------------------
|                              .                              |
|                              .                              |
|                              .                              |
---------------------------------------------------------------
| Major_type(4 bits) | Minor_type(12 bits) | Length(uint16_t) |
---------------------------------------------------------------
|                         Raw data                            |
---------------------------------------------------------------

Crypto interface

Asymmetric key algorithm based attestation

Device must contain an asymmetric key pair. The private part of it is used to sign the initial attestation token. Current implementation supports only the ECDSA P256 signature over SHA256. The public part of the key pair is used to create the key identifier (kid) in the unprotected part of the COSE header. The kid is used by verification entity to look up the corresponding public key to verify the signature in the token. The t_cose part of the initial attestation service implements the signature generation and kid creation. But the actual calculation of token’s hash and signature is done by the Crypto service in the device. System integrators might need to re-implement the following functions if they want to use initial attestation service with a different cryptographic library than Crypto service:

  • t_cose_crypto_pub_key_sign(): Calculates the signature over a hash value.

  • t_cose_crypto_get_ec_pub_key(): Get the public key to create the key identifier.

  • t_cose_crypto_hash_start(): Start a multipart hash operation.

  • t_cose_crypto_hash_update(): Add a message fragment to a multipart hash operation.

  • t_cose_crypto_hash_finish():Finish the calculation of the hash of a message.

Interface needed by verification code:

  • t_cose_crypto_pub_key_verify(): Verify the signature over a hash value.

Key handling

The provisioning of the initial attestation key is out of scope of the service and this document. It is assumed that device maker provisions the unique asymmetric key pair during the manufacturing process. Software integrators must make sure that TFM_BUILTIN_KEY_SLOT_IAK is available via the Crypto service, which will then be used by the Attestation partition to perform the required signing operations via the PSA crypto interface.

Symmetric key algorithm based attestation

Device must contain a symmetric key to generate the authentication tag of the initial attestation token. A key identifier (kid) can be encoded in the unprotected part of the COSE header. It helps verification entity look up the symmetric key to verify the authentication tag in the token.

The t_cose part of the initial attestation service implements the authentication tag generation. The authentication tag generation is done by the Crypto service. System integrators might need to re-implement the following functions if platforms provide a different cryptographic library than Crypto service:

  • t_cose_crypto_hmac_sign_setup(): Set up a multi-part HMAC calculation operation.

  • t_cose_crypto_hmac_update(): Add a message fragment to a multi-part HMAC operation.

  • t_cose_crypto_hmac_sign_finish(): Finish the calculation of the HMAC of a message.

Interface needed by verification code:

  • t_cose_crypto_hmac_verify_setup(): Set up a multi-part HMAC verification operation.

  • t_cose_crypto_hmac_verify_finish(): Finish the verification of the HMAC of a message.

It also requires the same hash operations as listed in asymmetric key algorithm based initial attestation above, in attestation test cases.

Key handling

The provisioning of the initial attestation key is out of scope of the service and this document. It is assumed that device maker provisions the symmetric key during the manufacturing process. The following API is defined to retrieve the symmetric attestation key from platform layer. Software integrators must port this interface according to their SoC design and make sure that key is available by Crypto service:

  • tfm_plat_get_symmetric_iak(): Get the symmetric initial attestation key raw data.

  • tfm_plat_get_symmetric_iak_id(): Get the key identifier of the symmetric initial attestation key. The key identifier can be used as kid parameter in COSE header. Optional.

Initial Attestation Service compile time options

There is a defined set of flags that can be used to compile in/out certain service features. The CommonConfig.cmake file sets the default values of those flags. The list of flags are:

  • ATTEST_INCLUDE_OPTIONAL_CLAIMS: Include also the optional claims to the attestation token. Default value: ON.

  • ATTEST_INCLUDE_COSE_KEY_ID: COSE key-id is an optional field in the COSE unprotected header. Key-id is calculated and added to the COSE header based on the value of this flag. Default value: OFF.

  • ATTEST_CLAIM_VALUE_CHECK: Check attestation claims against hard-coded values found in platform/ext/common/template/attest_hal.c. Default value is OFF. Set to ON in a platform’s CMake file if the attest HAL is not yet properly ported to it.

  • SYMMETRIC_INITIAL_ATTESTATION: Select symmetric initial attestation. Default value: OFF.

  • ATTEST_INCLUDE_TEST_CODE: The initial attestation implementation is instrumented with additional test code. This is required in order to run some of the initial attestation regression tests. These tests are not required to be run by platform integrators, and are only meant to be used for development or modification of the initial attestation implementation. Enabling this option enables T_COSE_DISABLE_SHORT_CIRCUIT_SIGN which will short circuit the signing operation. Default value: OFF.

  • ATTEST_STACK_SIZE- Defines the stack size of the Initial Attestation Partition. This value mainly depends on the build type(debug, release and minisizerel) and compiler.

Comparison of asymmetric and symmetric algorithm based token authentication

The symmetric key based authentication requires a more complex infrastructure for key management. Symmetric keys must be kept secret because they are sensitive asset, like the private key in case of asymmetric cryptographic algorithms. The main difference is that private keys are only stored on device, with proper hardware protection against external access, but symmetric keys must be known by both party (device and verifier), so they must also be stored in a central server of a relying party (who verifies the tokens). If keys are revealed then devices can be impersonated. If the database with the symmetric keys becomes compromised then all corresponding devices become untrusted. Since a centralised database of symmetric keys may need to be network connected, this can be considered to be a valuable target for attackers. The advantage of ECDSA based token authentication is that sensitive assets is only stored one place (in the device) and only one unique key per device. So if a device is compromised then only that single device become untrusted. In this case, the database of the relying party contains the corresponding public keys, which are not considered to be a confidential assets, so they can be shared with anybody. This shows the main advantage of asymmetric based authentication, because verification of attestation tokens can be done by a third party, such as cloud service providers (CSP). Thus Device Maker (DM) or Chip Maker (CM) does not need to operate such a service.

Symmetric

Asymmetric

Authentication mode

HMAC over SHA256

ECDSA P256 over SHA256

Crypto key type in HW

Symmetric key

ECDSA private key (secp256r1)

Secrets are stored

Device and database

Device only

Verification database contains

Same symmetric key

Public keys

COSE authentication tag in the token

COSE_Mac0

COSE_Sign1

Verification entity

CM or DM, who provisioned the symmetric key

Can be anybody: third party provisioning service, cloud service provider, CM, DM

Verification

Regression test

The initial attestation token is verified by the attestation test suite in test/secure_fw/suites/attestation. The test suite is responsible for verifying the token signature and parsing the token to verify its encoding and the presence of the mandatory claims. This test suite can be executed on the device. It is part of the regression test suite. The test suite is configurable in the test/secure_fw/suites/attestation/attest_token_test_values.h header file. In this file there are two attributes for each claim which are configurable (more details in the header file):

  • Requirements of presence: optional or mandatory

  • Expected value: Value check can be disabled or expected value can be provided here.

For asymmetric initial attestation test, the dummy initial attestation public key is hard-coded in tfm_initial_attest_pub_key.c, which is exported and built with initial attestation regresstion test when tests are enabled. Initial attestation regression test verifies the IAT generated by initial attestation service with the exported public key.

iat-verifier

There is another possibility to verify the attestation token. This addresses the off-device testing when the token is already retrieved from the device and verification is done on the requester side. There is a Python script for this purpose in the tf-m-tools repo called iat-verifier. It does the same checking as the attestation test suite. The following steps describe how to simulate an off-device token verification on a host computer. It is described how to retrieve an initial attestation token when TF-M code is executed on FVP and how to use the iat-verifier script to check the token. This example assumes that user has license for DS-5 and FVP models:

  • Build TF-M with any of the ConfigRegression*.cmake build configurations for MPS2 AN521 platform. More info in tfm_build_instruction.

  • Lunch FVP model in DS-5. More info in Run TF-M examples on Arm platforms.

  • Set a breakpoint in test/secure_fw/suites/attestation/attest_token_test.c in decode_test_internal(..) after the token_main_alt(..) returned, i.e. on line 859. Execute the code in the model until the breakpoint hits second time. At this point the console prints the test case name:

    • For asymmetric initial attestation, the console prints ECDSA signature test of attest token.

    • For symmetric initial attestation, the console prints Symmetric key algorithm based Initial Attestation test.

  • At this point the token resides in the model memory and can be dumped to host computer.

  • The ADDRESS and SIZE attributes of the initial attestation token is stored in the completed_token local variable. Their value can be extracted in the (x)=Variables debug window.

  • Apply commands below in the Commands debug window to dump the token in binary format to the host computer:

    • For asymmetric initial attestation dump memory <PATH>/iat_01.cbor <ADDRESS> +<SIZE>

    • For symmetric initial attestation dump memory <PATH>/iat_hmac_02.cbor <ADDRESS> +<SIZE>

  • Execute commands below on the host computer to verify the token:

    • For asymmetric initial attestation check_iat -p -K -k platform/ext/common/template/tfm_initial_attestation_key.pem <PATH>/iat_01.cbor

    • For symmetric initial attestation check_iat -m mac -p -K -k platform/ext/common/template/tfm_symmetric_iak.key <PATH>/iat_hmac_02.cbor

  • Documentation of the iat-verifier can be found in the tf-m-tools-iat-verifer-readme .


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