RSS key management

The RSS has a set of hardware components that act together to prevent hardware protected keys being disclosed to compromised software. This chain involves the LifeCycle Manager “LCM”, the Key Management Unit “KMU”, and the cryptographic accelerator in the integration layer of the RSS (which in reference RSS builds is a CryptoCell-3XX series accelerator).

Hardware protected keys (henceforth “Hardware Keys”) are stored in the LCM, in protected keyslots. On production-mode “PCI” chips these slots are write-only. They are protected during provisioning from disclosure by Secure Provisioning “SP” mode disabling debug, and the encryption with either the RTL key or the CM provisioning key. On boot, the LCM checks the integrity of the stored hardware keys by comparing the amount of zeroes with a stored zero-count which, because of the property of the OTP that does not allow 1-bits to be set to 0-bits, allows detection of any changes in the keys. If the check succeeds it exports the keys to the KMU over a private memory bus (one that is not accessible programs running on the RSS’ CPU or other controllers on the main bus such as the DMA).

The KMU has between 2 and 32 hardware keyslots, which are 256 bit (32 byte) in size. Between 0 and 8 of these are hardware keyslots, and correspond to the hardware keyslots in the LCM. These slots are filled by the key export from the LCM, and have their permissions preconfigured so they are not readable or writable by software. Software KMU keyslots (keyslots that are not defined in hardware as hardware keyslots) can be read and written, and then subsequently locked to prevent reading and writing, so that they behave like hardware keyslots. This allows trusted immutable firmware to set up keys for less-trusted later stage code, which can be used but cannot be read. KMU keyslots can be exported over another private bus to the cryptographic accelerator. Hardware keyslots can be invalidated, making them unusable until a hard reset.

The cryptographic accelerator receives the key into a write-only key register, and then can use it to perform cryptographic operations. For the CryptoCell-3XX series, this is limited to AES. As with the previous stages, software cannot retrieve the key, only use it. Note that currently this can only be used with the cc3xx_rom_lib driver, not the cryptocell-312-runtime driver, as the latter requires modification. Note that this path is the only way to use hardware protected keys on the RSS, they cannot be used by software cryptographic libraries that require key material to be accessible by software.

The RSS uses this functionality to allow key derivation (based on NIST SP800-108 with an RSA-based PRF that can utilise the hardware keys as described above) from the HUK and GUK. This allows the derivation of the CCA platform attestation key / delegated attestation root key without allowing access to the GUK directly. As a further security measure, these keys are derived by ROM/OTP code, and the HUK and GUK are then invalidated so they cannot be used by the runtime firmware and BL2.

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